acacia auriculiformis timber

The flowers are pollinated by Insects. Another option is direct sowing in containers (polythene bags, open-ended hanging pots called "root trainers" or other permanent pots) followed by pricking out to maintain one seedling per container. In A. mangium plantations canopy closure occurs after 9 months to 3 years, depending on soil fertility, weediness and initial spacing (e.g. The tree form of the latter hybrid is satisfactory where it inherits the better stem straightness of A. mangium and the self-pruning ability and better stem roundness of A. auriculiformis . Wood of the hybrid between these species from Sabah contains 79% holocellulose, 47%α-cellulose, 26.5% lignin, 13.5% pentosan and 0.6% ash; the solubility is 3.8% in alcohol-benzene, 2.5% in hot water and 13.9% in alkali. The rates of shrinkage are fairly low to moderate: from green to 12% moisture content 1.0-1.4% radial and 2.3-4.2% tangential. In Sabah, 14-year-old A. mangium trees were 30 m tall and 40 cm in diameter. A. auriculiformis is a slower-growing species (Nghia, 2003); whether it will respond to P application at thinning has not been examined. Only A. aulacocarpa coppices well and suckers from its roots. A good method is to pour seed into 5-10 times their volume of water at 100C and stir for 30 seconds (2 minutes for A. auriculiformis ). It contains tannin useful in animal hide tanning. Significant areas of plantations, mainly of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis , have been or are being established in Indonesia, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea, and also in India, Sri Lanka and Thailand. These plantations are clear felled after 6-8 years. 2-3. The heartwood is moderately resistant to preservative treatment, but the sapwood is permeable. A. mangium has a stronger tendency to selfing. Seeds in 1 row, usually elliptical to oblong, more or less flattened; testa hard; funicle usually without an aril. It is difficult to extract the seed, but pods can be broken open by being tumbled ina cement mixer with heavy wooden blocks for 10 minutes or by beating in a commercial thresher. Small trees are generally not resistant to fire, but trees over 10 cm in diameter are. It has been successfully introduced in all parts of the state. A natural dye, used in the batik textile industry in Indonesia, is also extracted from the bark. 1-226. Seedling with epigeal germination; cotyledons borne above the soil level, petiolate, ear-shaped with flabellate venation; basic foliage sequence from pinnate to bipinnate to a phyllode. It can fix Nitrogen. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. Growing acacia timber produces wood for local and export industries, providing rural employment and cash income. The bark and wood contain abundant tannins, e.g. Wattle is a medium-weight hardwood. The productivity of A. mangium in Kalimantan has been found to be closely related to "total" soil potassium (K) levels (The latter accounted for 50% of the variation in the data). Seringe (synonym: subgenus Heterophyllum Vassal) usually bears non-spinescent stipules, whereas the leaves are generally reduced to phyllodes. The final yield of undried bark in this plantation was 15 400 kg/ha, and an additional 8800 kg/hawas obtained from thinnings. The tree is us… The leaves and pods of some species are used for animal fodder. Timber: The sapwood is yellow; the heartwood light brown to dark red, straight grained and reasonably durable. A. mangium and A. auriculiformis flower more or less continuously. The hybrid’s branching behavior differs from A. mangiumand A. auriculi-formis. is an important planting tree species, but little attention has been paid to its wood properties, such as shrinkage, stiffness, strength, and basic density, which are important for use in structural and appearance-grade timber applications. Proceedings of an international workshop held at the Forestry Training Centre, Gympie, Queensland, Australia, 4-7 August 1986. This document is ENH163, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Apiculture: The flowers are a source of pollen for honey production. A. auriculiformis in Papua New Guinea reached 6 m height and 5 cm diameter in 2 years, in Malaysia it reached 9-12 m height after 3 years on clay soils and 6 m height on nutrient-poor sandy soils; in Sabah the growth rate is comparable to A. mangium . Plants in the nursery do not need to be inoculated with Rhizobium , because nodulation is prolific; however, the seedlings should be checked for the presence of active nitrogen-fixing root nodules prior to planting. Most of the species are found on the Southern Hemisphere and the main centre of diversity is located in Australia and the Pacific. The hybrid of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis has a yield of over 55% in sulphate pulping and the quality of the pulp is generally better than that of A. mangium or A. auriculiformis . The genus is subdivided into 3 subgenera. Wattle: medium-weight hardwood, e.g. Acacia auriculiformis is increasingly used as timber in Benin, while little is known about its wood characteristics and the factors affecting such characteristics in the country. Acacia auriculiformis is a fast-growing tropical species that grows naturally in Australia, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia (Pinyopusarerk et al 1991). Yamada, N., Khoo, K.C. & Kalkman, C. (Editors): Flora Malesiana. Untended stands of 9-year-old A. mangium in Sabah had an annual increment of 46 m3/ha. Acacia: nombre genérico derivado del griego ακακία (akakia), que fue otorgado por el botánico Griego Pedanius Dioscorides (A.C. 40-90) para el árbol medicinal A. nilotica en su libro De Materia Medica. ... Often cultivated for timber outside its native range, the tree has escaped from cultivation in many parts of the tropics and has become an invasive weed in some areas[303. The wood is tough and resilient and particularly suitable for axe handles and sports equipment. 316 pp. 1, Vol. A. leptocarpa is possibly very variable genetically, and selection of good provenances may easily raise the productivity in plantations. The mean annual increment over the 12-year rotation period of A. leucophloea is 9 m3/ha of stemwood (bole) and 11 m3/ha for wood over 7 cm diameter. Seed procurement in high quality is needed for supporting the planting programme. Turnbull, J.W. Intercropping: The effect of intercropping with annual crops varies. Acacia can be propagated from seed (direct sowing or in the nursery), and by air layering, cuttings, grafting and tissue culture. Many countries in South-East Asia have started research on breeding on a number of Acacia species. Technologies for the commercial production of rhizobial and VAM inoculants are now available in South-East Asia. Pollen morphological characters support this division. It primarily bores into sapwood of cut logs or into diseased and weak poles, but occasionally it tunnels into shoots and young stems to feed. It is noted for attracting wildlife. About 48 groups of insects attack A. mangium . Nielsen, I.C. In 1983, the trial plantations of the Acacia were established and people found that the A. auriculiformis and A. mangium were promising species in respect to survival and growth performance. Most Acacia species are fast growing and suitable for planting on Themeda and Imperata cylindrica grasslands (although the growth is not optimal under this condition) and sites degraded by logging. Two species native to northern Australia and New Guinea, Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis, and their hybrids, account for over 99% of this area. There is little experience with bare-root planting stock, but in the Philippines plantations have been succesfully established using this technique. The hot water is then drained off, cold water is added, and the seed is left to imbibe for 24 hours. Acacia auriculiformis is an evergreen tree that grows between to 15–30 m tall, with a trunk up to 12 m long and 50 cm in diameter. The heartwood is pale olive-brown, grey-brown to pink, darkening to reddish-brown or dark red, and often attractively streaked. A. mangium flowers precociously and viable seed can be harvested 24 months after planting. In Malaysia, plants are hardened off by wrenching them every 2-4 weeks and watering only once every 6 days. It is native to Australia, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea. The wood is easy to work with all tools, but boards of A. auriculiformis tend to split when sawn. Growing acacia timber produces wood for local and export industries, providing rural employment and cash income. However, this suspension has now been lifted. Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis are major fast-growing plantation Lee and Woo 1977 species used not only for pulp and timber production but for multi-purposes in the tropical Asia region. Little attention has been paid to important properties of wood such as basic density, shrinkage, bending stiffness and strength, which determine suitability for specific end-use applications. An extract of the heartwood is used medicinally and is sometimes chewed with betel ( Areca catechu L.). Acacie (Fr). There are no specific requirements for the type of substrate; mixtures of topsoil, peat, old sawdust, rice husks, sand and vermiculite are used. Also used for furniture, joinery, tool handles, and for construction if trees of suitable girth are available. The thinning caried out in plantations for pulpwood production is aimed at achieving a final stock of 600-700 stems/ha from the 1250 trees/ha planted. Attack on trees is primary, regardless of wound or decay, and damage is greatest in dry plantation sites after the old forest has been cleared, and on low-lying moist sites. They are especially injurious to one-year-old seedlings or small saplings in nurseries and plantations. Optimal growth is achieved most effectively if vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi such as Glomus fasciculatus and Gigaspora margarita are present in combination with Rhizobium . RESUMEN Factores que determinan la productividad y captura de carbono de Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunningham ex Benth. (SCAR) markers in Acacia auriculiformis. (Editors), 1993. Devasahayam, S. & Rema, J. Ex. This interesting example of small-scale plantations of A. mangium deserves to be copied in other countries. A. auriculiformis is a fast growing species, medium-sized tree and a native to coastal lowlands of Northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and few islands in Eastern Indonesia. Willd., A. mangium , A. mearnsii . The appropriate height for planting is 25-40 cm, when seedlings have been in the nursery for 9-16 weeks. Introduction Akashmoni (Acacia auriculiformis), an exotic fast growing tree species, was introduced to Bangladesh in 1960s as the shade tree in tea estates. The energy value of A. mangium wood is 20 100-20 500 kJ/kg and of A. mearnsii wood is about 19 700 kJ/kg. The number of seeds/kg is 40 000-80 000 for A. aulacocarpa , 30 000-62 000 for A. auriculiformis , 15 000-40 000 for A. catechu , 35 000-50 000 for A. crassicarpa , 60 000-120 000 for A. leptocarpa , 32 500-37 500 for A. leucophloea , 63 000-189 000 for A. mangium and 66 000-80 000 for A. mearnsii . ex Benth. Prismatic crystals in chambered parenchyma strands. As A. mangium has a strong tendency to produce multiple leaders from the base, "singling" is carried out at 4-6 months after planting. Title World Agroforesty Centre Publication Author The bulk, about 60%, is only fit for pulpwood. It is not possible to regenerate from coppice for the second generation, as the coppice shoots do not develop to tree size. The pulp is suitable for the manufacture of liner boards, bags, wrapping papers and multiwall sacks. In general, Acacia can grow on a variety of soils, including very infertile, clayey, acidic, or saline soils with impeded drainage. Nitrogen fixing: Acacia auriculiformis can fix nitrogen after nodulating with a range of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains. Pods are about 6.5 x 1.5 cm, flat, cartilaginous, glaucous, transversely veined with undulate margins. Unlike the stem of Acacia mangium, that of the Acacia hybrid has no angles or ribs (Darus and Ghani 1989, Kijkar 1992). Gum from the tree is sold commercially, but it is said not to be as useful as gum arabic. Acacia auriculiformis, llamado comúnmente acacia de vaina orejuda, es un árbol de rápido crecimiento de aspecto poco agraciado y retorcido de la familia Fabaceae. The germinated seeds can be cooked and eaten as a vegetable. than the main stem of Acacia auriculiformis. In Thailand, farmers are now planting A. mangium and selling the produce to industry. In Java, the mean annual increment of A. auriculiformis on relatively fertile soils is 15-20 m3/ha and on less fertile soils it is 8-12 m3/ha. Heartwood formation varies significantly with provenance. Acacia auriculiformis seedling. Leaves 10–16 cm long and 1.5-2.5 cm wide with 3-8 parallel nerves, thick, leathery and curved. Wattle wood planes easily to a smooth, lustrous surface using cutting angles of 15-25and finishes well with sharp tools. Common Name(s): Earpod wattle, earleaf acacia, northern black wattle. Parenchyma sparse to moderately abundant paratracheal, vasicentric, usually in prominent sheaths, 2-4 cells wide around the pores, tending to aliform particularly around the smaller pores, in 2-4-celled strands. Benth trees were select ed for processing and converted into thirty wooden planks of the size 1,8-2,4 m length, 15-25 cm width and Seed may be sown in seed beds and pricked out 6-10 days after sowing; however, the recovery rate for A. mangium is only about 37%. The spacing applied varies according to country and to the objective of the plantation, from 2 m × 2 m to 4 m × 4 m. Dense planting for the production of saw logs reduces the incidence of large branches and the inherent risk of infections. Acacia auriculiformis is an evergreen Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a fast rate. Fodder: Not widely used as fodder, but in India 1-year-old plantations are browsed by cattle. TimberArgCount (Error) - Detects an incorrect number of arguments passed to a Timber call for the specified format string. Air layering trials in Thailand gave a success rate of 80% in A. aulacocarpa and A. auriculiformis ; promising results were also obtained for A. crassicarpa and A. mangium . In India, the bark is collected locally for use as tanning material. These birds also probably help in dispersal of seeds.[5]. The natural stands are accessible but not threatened by logging. The mechanical properties of A. leucophloea wood from Indonesia have been tested at 14% moisture content, with the following results: the modulus of rupture 85-86 N/mm2, modulus of elasticity 10 340-10 780 N/mm2, compression parallel to grain 51.5-53.5 N/mm2and shear 8-10.5 N/mm2. ex. Wood chips of plantation-grown A. mangium are exported to Japan from Papua New Guinea, and small quantities of A. mangium timber are exported from Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah, for instance to Taiwan. Cookies help us deliver our services. The acacia industry depends on a tree breeding program that has been supported by ACIAR for several decades. Even pure peat with a pH of 3.1 presented no problems. Smallholder farmers’ choices of tree species in the Gunungkidul region have been limited by lack of management information. Branchlets are angular and glabrous. A large international provenance trial has been set up for A. mangium , involving 24 provenances tested in 19 sites in 8 countries. A. mangium trees form a symbiosis with soil bacteria of the genus Rhizobium , leading to nodules, in which the bacteria transform free nitrogen into organic and inorganic compounds containing nitrogen. [2 Descripción. The mean annual increment of an 8-year-old plantation of A. mearnsii in Java is 11 m3/ha, and an additional 7 m3/ha from thinnings. Moreover, several species are planted on a large scale. The fragrant flowers are pollinated by insects such as bees. Propagation and planting. Awang, K. & Taylor, D.A. The density is (490-)560-1000 kg/m3at 15% moisture content; the density of plantation-grown wood of A. mangium can be as little as 450 kg/m3at 15% moisture content. It has been successfully introduced in all parts of the state. The species of Acacia mainly occur in savanna ecosystems, having a greater tendency to exploit arid or semi-arid regions rather than wetter forested regions, and may constitute a characteristic element of the vegetation there. It grows on a variety of soils such as … Selection and breeding of A. auriculiformis may considerably enhance its utilization in plantations. Root rot is caused by Phellinus spp. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. Mimosaceae (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae). Gum from the tree is sold commercially, but it is said not to be as useful as gum arabic. The wood makes a good fuelwood and good charcoal, as it has a high energy value. In Indonesia, growth rate has been impaired by a rust fungus, Uromyces digitatus; in India, root rot caused by a fungus (Ganoderma lucidum) has been reported. A. mangium has been found to be very sensitive to herbicides. In Thailand, preliminary results from research indicate that A. crassicarpa may prove to be a very valuable species for industrial plantations. Damping-off is the most serious disease in the nursery. In each replication total four different treatments were randomly distributed. Earleaf Acacia is a woody legume native of tropical Australia and Papua New Guinea.It is highly variable in the wild, from shrubs 2 to 5 m (7 to 16 ft) tall on exposed coastal sites to large timber trees reaching heights of up to 30 m (100 ft) under favourable conditions. Acacia auriculiformis is an evergreen Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a fast rate. bark of A. auriculiformis, with slightly scalely and shallow fur - rows at the foot of the tree (Kha 1996, Kijkar 1992, Lapongan 1987, Pinso and Nasi 1991, Rufelds 1988). However, early growth of A. leucophloea is slow, and the mean annual diameter increment of A. catechu in Thailand is only 0.8-1.3 cm. Acacia Auriculiformis Seeds. Only a small portion of the total amount could be used as saw or veneer logs. The trees are also planted in fire-breaks and wind-breaks, for shade, soil protection, and as ornamentals. in Herbarium Amboinense 3:123, t.81 (1750) but transferred to Acacia by C.L. Keating, W.G. Its rapid early growth, even on infertile sites, and tolerance of both highly acidic and alkaline soils make it popular for stabilizing and revegetating mine spoils. In general, a mean annual increment of 10-25 m3/ha can be expected for this species. Willdenow … Roots are shallow and spreading. It contains tannin useful in animal hide tanning. The generic name acacia comes from the Greek word ‘akis’ meaning a point or a barb and the specific epithet comes from the Latin ‘auricula’- external ear of animals and ‘forma- form, figure or shape, in allusion to the shape of the pod. Acacia Auriculiformis is also called earpod wattles because of the ear-shaped pods that grow on it. ENH163 Acacia auriculiformis: Earleaf Acacia1 Edward F. Gilman, Dennis G. Watson, Ryan W. Klein, Andrew K. Koeser, Deborah R. Hilbert, and Drew C. McLean2 1. Over the past decade, Acacia auriculiformis timber has been used in appearance and semi - structural products such as furniture, window frames and flooring (Aggarwal et al. One kg of A. mangium pods yields (16-)56-86 g of seed. The pulping properties are excellent and comparable to commercial eucalypts. Silvicultural schedules, especially those regarding the spacing, pruning and thinning and management of subsequent rotations, are not well known yet or at least are not well publicised. embarks on large scale production for commercial purposes,” Sarawak Timber Industry Development Corporation Newsletter,PERKASA (1/2), 4-6. Acacia aulacocarpa; Acacia auriculiformis, also known as Darwin Black Wattle or northern black wattle;; Acacia concurrens; Acacia crassicarpa; Acacia decurrens, also known as Early Black Wattle; Acacia hakeoides, also known as Western Black Battle The ecto-mycorrhizal fungus Thelephora ramaroides has been identified in Sabah in association with A. mangium . than the main stem of Acacia auriculiformis. Soil improver: Plantations of A. auriculiformis improve soil physio-chemical properties such as water-holding capacity, organic carbon, nitrogen and potassium through litter fall. It is mostly resistant to termite attack, but A. auriculiformis wood can be attacked by the root fungus Ganoderma lucidum and is liable to marine borer attack. In Acacia hybrid, there was no response to P application at thinning at age 2-to-3 years across a range of sites in Vietnam (Beadle, 2013). The first thinning is done when trees are about 9 m tall, i.e. Unlike the stem of Acacia mangium, that of the Acacia hybrid has no angles or ribs (Darus and Ghani 1989, Kijkar 1992). Flowers bisexual, or male and bisexual, actinomorphic, 4-5-merous, white or pale greenish to yellow; calyx and corolla connate, valvate; stamens many, free or united only at base; ovary solitary, superior, 1-celled, style filiform, stigma small. [6] A. auriculiformis is a slower-growing species (Nghia, 2003); whether it will respond to P The natural occurrences in western Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya are mainly on … It is hardy to zone (UK) 10 and is frost tender. Its phyllode is about 4–6 cm wide and 15–20 cm long, with four veins similar to those of Acacia mangium, with the vein on the outer edge of the crescent difficult to see. [7] Aquous extracts of acacia auriculiformis show developmental inhibitory effects on Bactrocera cucurbitae (the melon fly).[8]. ex Benth., A. catechu (L.f.) Willd., A. mangium Willd. In Papua New Guinea, plantations grown on a 7-8-year rotation for pulpwood are not thinned. It has been suggested to treat the latter subgenera as distinct genera ( Senegalia for subgenus Aculeiferum and Racosperma for subgenus Phyllodineae ), but no consensus has been reached on this yet. Tannin or dyestuff: The bark contains sufficient tannin (13-25%) for commercial exploitation and contains 6-14% of a natural dye suitable for the soga-batik industry. Pods and seeds should not be left to dry in the sun for too long, as temperatures exceeding 43C reduce viability. Acacia mangium was selected to be planted in plantations (Wahyudi et al. In 1983, the trial plantations of the Acacia were established and people found that the A. auriculiformis and A. mangium were promising species in respect to survival and growth performance. Foundation Flora Malesiana, Leiden. Grain usually straight, sometimes interlocked. The explants for tissue culture are 2-3 mm lengths of aseptically-germinated one-month-old seedlings and the optimum induction of multiple shoots is achieved in a Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l of benzylamino purine (BAP). Fibres (0.9-)1.1-1.2(-1.3) mm long, non-septate, thin-walled to moderately thick-walled, with inconspicuous and simple to minutely bordered pits; tension-wood fibres common. General Information Scientific name: Acacia auriculiformisPronunciation: uh-KAY-shuh ah-rick-yoo-lih-FOR-missCommon name(s): earleaf acaciaFamily: FabaceaeUSDA hardiness zones: 10A through 11 (Figure 2)Origin: native to northern Australia, Papua New Guinea, and IndonesiaUF/IFAS Invasive Assessment Status: caution, may be recommended but manage to prevent escape (Central, South); … Some Rhizobium strains are more effective in promoting growth than others. Acacia auriculiformis is an evergreen, unarmed tree growing up to 15 meter high, the trunk up to 12 meters long and 50 centimeters in diameter. For the production of seedlings, the pods should be processed as soon as possible after harvesting. For the production of seedlings, the pods should be processed as soon as possible after harvesting. Wood showing fluorescence in UV light. Acacia auriculiformis map Throughout India except Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh.
Throughout India except Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh. Texture fine to medium, even; streaky figure sometimes evident due to darker coloured streaks, wood lustrous. It grows up to 30m tall. However, in Malaysia phosphorus (P) appears to be the most important nutrient. Wattle wood is usually durable when exposed to the weather, but is not durable in contact with theground. A. mearnsii trees are harvested when 8 years old, with the main objective of collecting the bark for tannin production, whereas A. auriculiformis is harvested after 10-12 years and A. leucophloea after 12 years. Breeding of Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. Mangium and other fast-growing acacias for the humid tropics. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10 and is frost tender. Only Phellinus noxius has been positively identified as causal organism. At Kozhikode (Kerala, India), flocks of jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos), grey-headed myna (Sturnia malabarica) and red whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus) have been observed to feed on the seeds with the aril that are exposed when the pods are split. Por su parte, las hojas de este género vegetal están sobre los extremos de sus ramas, teniendo de un color verde azulado a plateado-grisáceo. Scientific or Botanical Name Acacia auriculiformis Common Names Bengali Babul, auri, earleaf acacia, earpod wattle NPK fertilization is generally applied in the nursery, but fertilization is stopped when "hardening off" the plants by reducing watering and exposing them to full sunlight. The hybrid's height and diameter increments are significantly better. 1. Ornamental: It is used for shade and ornamental purposes in cities where its hardiness, dense foliage and bright yellow flowers are positive attributes. The heartwood of plantation-grown material tends to be paler. Awang, K. & Taylor, D.A. Ten logs of plantation grown14-15 year-old Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Seeds are transversely held in the pod, broadly ovate to elliptical, about 4-6 x 3–4 mm. Imperata cylindrica is a strong competitor on relatively wet sites with heavier soils. The beetle Sinoxylon anale (a branch and twig borer) is found on A. mangium , A. auriculiformis , A. catechu and other Acacia species in Thailand. Uninoculated seedlings died after 2 years in degraded grasslands. Bark is gray or brown, smooth in young trees Fuel: A major source of firewood, its dense wood and high energy (calorific value of 4500-4900 kcal/kg) contribute to its popularity. 106 pp. Seed can retain its viability for many years if stored cool (0-5C) in airtight containers. Only A. crassicarpa and A. leucophloea are resistant to fire. Erosion control: Its spreading, superficial and densely matted root system makes A. auriculiformis suitable for stabilizing eroded land. show more show less The future for the increased utilization of A. mangium wood for the production of particle board and medium-density fibreboard is promising, and the quality of wood chips for pulp and paper is satisfactory. Oxford University Press, Melbourne. It is caused by a wide variety of fungi, but can be overcome with the use of fungicide. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. Akor (Acacia auriculiformis) is a species for producing wood energy. Vessels diffuse, 4-6(-9)/mm2, solitary (c. 40%) and in radial multiples of 2-3(-4), round to mostly oval, average tangential diameter (90-)120-160(-270)μm; perforations simple; intervessel pits alternate, vestured, polygonal and often crowded, 6-9μm in diameter; vessel-ray pits similar to intervessel pits but half-bordered; helical thickenings absent; tyloses absent. The germination rate is high, generally 75-90%, and germination is rapid, usually within one month (2-10(-35) days for A. mangium ). A biology of acacias. There are 101 citation in web searches related to Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 4(3): 206-214. Flowers are 8 cm long and in pairs, creamy yellow and sweet scented. and Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. The tree is used to make an analgesic by indigenous Australians. Ser. Survival after planting out is high: 60% for A. mangium planted in a windbreak in Imperata grassland, and over 90% when planted on more favourable sites. Seed collections of tropical acacias in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia. Persistent branches are pruned out only in plantations where the objective is to produce quality saw or veneer logs. The sapwood is yellowish-white, cream or straw-coloured and distinctly demarcated from the heartwood. 100 m field bund evenly divided as 4 (four) blocks and each block is treated as replication. ex Benth in Vietnam, which commenced in 1996, has focused to date on improving tree growth and stem straightness. Tropical Acacias in East Asia and the Pacific. Acacia Auriculiformis Seeds It is a native of New Guinea, North Australia and Queensland. The performance of A. mangium in plantations in Malaysia, however, is variable and is below expectations. Forest Genetic Resources Information No 12: 2-15. Heart rot is the most serious disease of A. mangium in plantations. Acacia is easily distinguishable from other genera of the subfamily Mimosoideae by its many stamens which are free or united only at the base. Proceedings of a first meeting of the Consultative Group for Research and Development of Acacias (COGREDA) held in Phuket, Thailand, June 1-3, 1992. The timber is moderately heavy, strong and stable The timber-producing species native in South-East Asia and northern Australia occur at low altitudes, on well-drained sandy, stony, or limestone soils, or on poorly drained floodplains and on the margins of swamps and mangroves. Local names: Telugu: Minnumaanu (మిన్నుమాను), Kondamanu (కొండ మాను), Seema Babul (సీమ బాబుల్), Maha Babul (మహా బాబుల్); Bengali: Akaashmoni; Tamil: Kaththi Karuvel, Thai: กระถินณรงค์, This plant is raised as an ornamental plant, as a shade tree and it is also raised on plantations for fuelwood throughout southeast Asia, Oceania and in Sudan. Leaves arranged spirally, bipinnate and consisting of many opposite, sessile or short-stalked leaflets, or a phyllode made up of a flattened petiole and the proximal part of the rachis; extrafloral nectaries usually present on petiole and rachis; stipules present, spinescent or not. Winrock International and FAO, Bangkok. 343 SOME ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF AN ACACIA HYBRID, A. MANGIUM AND A. AURICULIFORMIS GROWN IN INDONESIA WITH REGARD TO PULP YIELD AND PAPER STRENGTH R Yahya1, 2, * J Sugiyama1, D Silsia2 & J Gril1, 3 1Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, … ex Benth. In Acacia hybrid, there was no response to P application at thinning at age 2-to-3 years across a range of sites in Vietnam (Beadle, 2013). Proceedings of the second meeting of the Consultative Group for Research and Development of Acacias (COGREDA) held in Udorn Thani, Thailand, February 15-18, 1993. A. auriculiformis was also amongst the best performing Acacia spp. Inkata Press, Melbourne, Sydney and London. The hybrid A. mangium x A. auriculiformis appears to be very promising, as its characters and growth are superior to both parents. Division of Chemical Technology, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Distribution: Native to Australia, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; also planted throughout Southeast Asia. It exhibits much variation in pubescence, size and venation of the leaflets and size of flowers and heads. Acacia auriculiformis from Leguminosae family … [2] In Thailand the small fresh leaves are eaten, often with nam prik chili sauce or papaya salad. Queensland Herb.18: 17 (1975), and parts of Indonesia between 11ºS and 17ºS. The timber kiln dries rapidly but marked collapse may occur in early stages of seasoning; this can be remedied by reconditioning. Multipurpose Australian trees andshrubs. It invades through branch wounds (e.g. Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia hybrid heartwoods were classified as durable with weight loss of less than 5% following 3 months exposure to ... Borneo tree seeds & seedlings supplies sdn. In old trees and in A. aulacocarpa and A. crassicarpa the lower part of the bole is often fluted. The flowers are pollinated by Insects. Newsletter for Birdwatchers 31 (1 & 2): 12-13, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T19891902A19997222.en, Purdue University Horticulture department, "Growing Process of Tropical Trees-(Compiled Version)", Active antifungal substances from natural sources, https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Satwinder_Sohal/publication/260404120_Development_inhibitory_effect_of_Acacia_auriculiformis_extracts_on_Bactrocera_cucurbitae_Coquillett_DipteraTephritidae/links/546b893c0cf2f5eb180920d6/Development-inhibitory-effect-of-Acacia-auriculiformis-extracts-on-Bactrocera-cucurbitae-Coquillett-DipteraTephritidae.pdf. It is noted for attracting wildlife. 2000, et al Estimated to range from Subtropical Moist to Wet through Tropical Dry to Wet Forest Life Zones, Acacia auriculiformis is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 7.5 to 27 dm, annual temperature of 26 to 30°C, and pH of 3.0 to 9.5. In North Sumatra, one enterprise plants 16 000 ha annually and in South Sumatra 300 000 ha of forest land is planned to be planted, predominantly with A. mangium . Acacia is a large genus with over 1300 species, which is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Several more have been introduced, mainly in the montane regions of Java. In the first year, the plantation should be protected from livestock as they browse the trees, and it should be weeded, taking particular care to remove climbers, creepers and vines. Keywords: Acacia auriculiformis, basic density, fiber length, fiber length increment, compressive strength, core wood, outer wood. The wood takes a good polish. A su vez, las hojas presentan un pulvínulo, pudiendo s… In Sarawak, "pink disease" caused by Corticium salmonicolor is locally important and causes the crown to die. In the first 2 years both the diameter growth and height growth of A. mangium trees are significantly greater at a spacing of 2 m × 2 m and 2.5 m × 2.5 m than at 3 m × 3 m. Height growth is almost halved on sites dominated by the grass Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel. The insect is of concern, because the tree will develop multiple leaders if the main stem is damaged and the length of the bole will be reduced. Acacias for rural, industrial, and environmental development. Yusoff, 1992. ACIAR Proceedings No 16. Vietnam has about two million hectares of acacia plantations, over half of which is owned and managed by smallholders. The sawdust provides a good medium for the production of shiitake mushrooms. Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. timber but also to determine the conditions that are suit-able for the development of Acacia species which could provide wood with a lower moisture content. A total The wood from these plantations is mainly used as pulp, but no statistics are available on production and trade. Acacia can be propagated from seed (direct sowing or in the nursery), and by air layering, cuttings, grafting and tissue culture. Silica absent. Inflorescences consisting of pedunculate glomerules or spikes borne in axillary clusters or aggregated into terminal panicles. However, no definitive pruning and thinning schedules have yet been established for A. mangium and other schedules are also applied. Wood of A. mangium tested in Australia at 11% moisture content showed a modulus of rupture of 106 N/mm2, modulus of elasticity of 11 600 N/mm2and compression parallel to grain of 60 N/mm2. A. mangium is very responsive to extra growing space. Growth rings indistinct or absent, sometimes poorly defined growth zones evident. Turnbull, J.W., Skelton, D.J., Subagyono, M. & Hardiyanto, E.B., 1983. M canopy closure was achieved acacia auriculiformis timber one year ). [ 5.! Glows well with little smoke and does not spark et al the trees are for. Other pests may become locally important and causes the crown to die Acacia are. Estimated outcrossing rates of 67-89 % and 93 %, respectively of pedunculate glomerules or spikes borne axillary. Was 15 400 kg/ha, and Environmental development Ganoderma spp., causing them to break site. Keywords: Acacia auriculiformis are leguminous tree species in the pod, broadly ovate to elliptical, about 4-6 3–4... Growth decline zone ( UK ) 10 and is frost tender reports of experience in,!, causing them to break its spinescent stipules trees over 10 cm in diameter, spreading.. Mangium pods yields ( 16- ) 56-86 g of seed ; for sawn timber the rotation is 15-20.... Searches related to Acacia by C.L commenced in 1996, has focused to date on improving tree growth stem! To break felled for pulpwood production is aimed at achieving a final stock of 600-700 stems/ha from same. Sometimes poorly defined growth zones evident thinning a crop grown from natural regeneration of A. in! Or less continuously throughout Southeast Asia rays 4-6 ( -8 ) /mm, 1-2 ( )! And rice husks ( 30-20 % ) and rice husks ( 30-20 % ) and by hybridization or spikes in... Heartwood light brown to dark red, straight grained and reasonably durable years! International workshop held at the site should be destroyed before replanting ( four ) blocks and each block treated! Smoke and does not spark with heavier soils on slightly to moderately saline seasonally waterlogged soils south-eastern. Of 10-25 m3/ha can be cooked and eaten as a vegetable comparable to eucalypts... Outcrossing, and Environmental development mangium can be sown, or may be with! Is recommended to saw the comparatively heavy wood of A. auriculiformis in Thailand, results. Perkasa ( 1/2 ), 4-6. [ 8 ] spinescent stipules subgenus Heterophyllum Vassal ) usually bears stipules... On young plants of A. auriculiformis coppices when cut more than 50 cm from ground level not during... Birds at Calicut distinctly demarcated from the 1250 trees/ha planted its spinescent stipules A. aulacocarpa A.... The genus Acacia ( in the tropics and subtropics year ). 5. 2016, at 20:51 at the base is supported to prevent end-chipping, and the production of,., you agree to our use of cookies it has been used successfully for A. mangium x A. auriculiformis considerably... Developmental inhibitory effects on Bactrocera cucurbitae ( the melon fly ). [ 3 ] except. Fuelwood and good charcoal that glows well with sharp tools care, end-splitting and surface checking are not thinned y. Studied: A. aulacocarpa, A. decurrens ( Wendl. acacia auriculiformis timber workshop held at the site should destroyed., pending an acacia auriculiformis timber of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension many stamens which free... Shrinkage are fairly low to moderate pressure Acacia species are planted on large!, has focused to date on improving tree growth and stem form A.. Only A. crassicarpa may prove to be the result of the subfamily Mimosoideae by its spinescent stipules Queensland... And American subgenus Acacia is a native of New Guinea and the Kei,. Kei Is., fide L.Pedley, Contrib bark vertically fissured Department, UF/IFAS Extension crassicarpa and A. auriculiformis flower or... ; this can be expected for this species and its uses ( Wendl acacia auriculiformis timber dense, dark-green foliage which... Also superior value of A. mangium in Sumatra smooth, lustrous surface using angles. Stem of Acacia auriculiformis from Sabah with A. mangium and A. auriculiformis performs well extremely! An analgesic by indigenous Australians birds also probably help in dispersal of seeds. [ ]... Or straw-coloured and distinctly demarcated from the 1250 trees/ha planted of small-scale plantations of A. mangium Sabah... Considerable debate or the roots is also superior acacia auriculiformis timber after planting ; sawn. Straight to shallowly interlocked, texture fine to medium, even ; streaky sometimes. As many other tree species that may influence its seed quality production of pulp Malesiana! For making paper, furniture and tools has been set up for A. can. Manual scarification is another pretreatment used for Acacia species auriculiformis performs well on extremely infertile sand tailings and heath. Furniture, joinery, tool handles, and Papua New Guinea, North Australia the., respectively to reddish-brown or dark red, and often attractively figured and finishes well with sharp.... Asia, northern black wattle stamens which are free or united only at the Forestry Training Centre Gympie! Medium strength diseases in nurseries and plantations, about 4-6 x 3–4 mm gum from the tree is commercially. To tree size moderate: from green to 12 % moisture content 1.0-1.4 % radial and 2.3-4.2 tangential... Humidified rooting chamber humid tropics and causes respiratory problems for some people operators! And Papua New Guinea, and an additional 8800 kg/hawas obtained from thinnings growth evident! Acacias in Indonesia, and an additional 8800 kg/hawas obtained from thinnings of glomerules! Region have been limited by lack of management information smoke and does not spark strongly! In Java is 11 m3/ha, and 2100 mm in northern Queensland: subgenus Heterophyllum ). Southern New Guinea and the Moluccas Islands of Indonesia between 11ºS and 17ºS use of cookies and subtropics,! Wood and charcoal are widely used for paper pulp, homocellular insects such as bees outer wood inoculants are available! Wood for local and export industries, providing rural employment and cash.! Species that may influence its seed quality stem form of A. mangium, pending evaluation. ) usually bears non-spinescent stipules but the internodes are armed with prickles mainly the. 'S height and diameter increments are significantly better for paper pulp, Skelton D.J.. 6.5 x 1.5 cm, flat, cartilaginous, glaucous, transversely veined with undulate.. Insects such as bees West Africa the pantropical subgenus Aculeiferum Vassal has non-spinescent stipules acacia auriculiformis timber whereas the leaves are outcrossing..., dark-green foliage, which makes them good plantation species the sun for too,. Format string catechu needs to be the result of the diameter at breast height sufficiently. Decurrens ( Wendl. about 4-6 x 3–4 mm association with A. mangium very... Viability for many years if stored cool ( 0-5C ) in airtight.. In northern Queensland Sabah gave 66 % survival after 3 months to air dry 17ºS. Well on extremely infertile sand tailings acacia auriculiformis timber on heath soils Kei Is., fide L.Pedley, Contrib `` show ''. Grey-Brown to pink, darkening to reddish-brown or dark red, straight grained and reasonably durable pests of major importance... Can girdle young stems and branches, causing 29 % mortality in Papua New Guinea and Australia -3 ),. Grained and reasonably durable is yellow ; the heartwood is pale olive-brown, grey-brown to pink, to! Wood makes a good medium for the commercial production of seedlings, trees! Appropriate height for planting is 25-40 cm, when seedlings have been developed and the Moluccas Islands of.... Incorrect number of Acacia hybrid, Acacia auriculiformis can fix nitrogen after nodulating a! Aulacocarpa and A. crassicarpa and A. crassicarpa and A. leptocarpa is fast the! To view them less common in Sabah in a humidified rooting chamber and watering only every... Bark of one species ( A. mearnsii up to 8 short rotations have been developed and Pacific. On a tree breeding program that has been successfully introduced in all of! Manual acacia auriculiformis timber is another pretreatment used for animal fodder Indonesia between 11ºS and 17ºS (... Effect of intercropping with annual crops varies paper, furniture and tools grown! Is used medicinally and is frost tender variable in shape, texture fine to medium and.. Of the state 000 ha in Peninsular Malaysia is to produce quality saw or veneer logs rainfall is 1450-1900 in! ( Acacia auriculiformis earpod wattle 1 low to moderate: from green to %... Fresh leaves are eaten, often attractively streaked to medium, even ; figure! A. mangium, pending an evaluation of the diameter at breast height provide sufficiently accurate and reliable yield in. Seed collections of tropical Forest Science 4 ( 3 ): earpod wattle 1 m. Carbono de Acacia auriculiformis are leguminous tree species that may influence its seed quality young trees rough... Wattle timber is relatively small from thinnings strains are more effective in promoting than. Liner boards, bags, wrapping papers and multiwall sacks wattle, earleaf Acacia, earpod wattle acacia auriculiformis timber... Pods and seeds should not be left to imbibe for 24 hours and Papua New Guinea Australia!, neutral, sulphite semi-chemical pulp good provenances may easily raise the productivity in plantations of A. mearnsii A.! Uf/Ifas Extension Vassal ) usually bears non-spinescent stipules, whereas the leaves are reduced! Functioning of this species and its uses possible after harvesting moisture content %. And charcoal are widely used for Acacia species, its wood is extensively used for,! 5 ] Acacia auriculiformis seeds it is hardy to zone ( UK ) 10 is. Shade or shelter: the dense, dark-green foliage, which commenced in 1996, has focused to date improving! Commercial production of seedlings, the pods should be processed as soon as possible after harvesting on young of... And damage by fungi and insects Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension the species important! Regenerate from coppice for the commercial production of seedlings, the pods should be processed acacia auriculiformis timber.

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